Hand hygiene should be rigorously monitored and performed at regular intervals, especially arrival at school, before eating or drinking, after using the toilet; after playing outdoors; when hands are physically dirty, and after coughing or sneezing. It is recommended that hand sanitizer dispensers be installed more readily at exit and entry points of schools and classrooms under the supervision of an adult in primary school or for students with special needs.
Bathrooms accommodating toilet facilities provide a route for all known transmission pathways of Covid-19 through exposure to air and surfaces. It is not unusual for public toilets to ‘contain the highest density of people within the smallest amount of real estate’ (Poland, 2020). Toilets in theatres, schools, restaurants, bars, shopping centres and sports facilities, in particular, may experience short periods of very heavy use. These facilities are considered important public infrastructure since they are vital for the maintenance of accessible, sustainable and comfortable urban spaces (Greed, 2004). Contamination through heavy use of toilets could present a far greater risk than indoor transmission in a public venue because there are additional risks from the production of urinary and faecal aerosol.
Access for all Bathroom design needs to ensure that all segments of the population are able to follow good hygiene practices (Panek et al., 2005). This dictates signage, door, tap and handle placement, space for wheelchairs, accessible towel dispensers, contactless (sensor) flush and taps, revolving or automatic access doors and electronic hand hygiene reminders if possible. Toilets frequented by children and/or the elderly should be subject to additional design strategies, given that these persons are either going to be more vulnerable to Covid-19, or more likely to be shedding the virus.